GravityNotes.Org - Internet Foundation Project
Richard Collins

Developing a Gravity Industry - Using gravity for imaging and communications

Sample Excel File of Regression - example of calibrating a superconducting gravimeter station with the sun moon signal.

Who's Who in Gravity Earthquake Early Warning?

Terms: Newtonian Noise, Gravity Signals, Transient Gravity, Elastogravity, Prompt Gravity, Gravity Fluctuations


 "terrestrial gravity fluctuations",

"gravity monitoring", "acceleration field", "acceleration fields", "gravimeter array", "accelerometer array", "gravimeter arrays", "accelerometer arrays", "seismometer array", "seismometer arrays",

"gravity signals", "gravity fluctuations", "transient gravity", "elastogravity", "prompt gravity",

"Newtonian noise", "Newtonian noise cancellation", "Newtonian noise suppression",

"density fluctuations" "gravimeter", "mass density fluctuations" "gravimeter", "mass density fluctuations", "mass density variations", "density fluctuations",

"terrestrial gravity noise", "gravity perturbations", "gravity fluctuations",

"seismic correlation", "gravimeter" "correlation", "gravimeter" "stochastic",

"stochastic acceleration", "stochastic gravimeter", "gravimeter calibration", "seismometer calibration", "accelerometer calibration", "gravity" "calibration",

"earth tide", "earth tides", "earth tide correction", "earth tides" "gravimeter", "ocean loading", "atmospheric loading", "permanent scatterer", "pole tides", "polar motion", "tidal ocean loading",

"atmospheric pressure" "gravimeter", "pressure changes" "gravimeter", "atmospheric pressure" "gravity", "atmospheric pressure variations", "pressure variations", "atmospheric pressure changes", "pressure changes", "pressure fluctuations", "pressure fluctuations" "gravity", "pressure fluctuations" "gravimeter",

"microearthquake", "microearthquake network", "microquake", "microgravity", "nanogravity", "picogravity",


"superconducting gravimeter", "atom gravimeter", "mems gravimeter", "gravimeter calibration", "optical seismometer",

"mems gravimeter" "earthquake", "Brownian" "accelerometer", "Brownian" "seismometer",

"atom gravimeter" "seismic", "gravimeter" "earthquake", "gravity sensors",

"sampling rate" "gravimeter", "sampling rate" "accelerometer", "sampling rate" "accelerometer" "gravimeters", "sampling rate" "seismometer", "high sampling rate" "seismometer",

"gravimeter" "kHz" , "gravimeter" "MHz", "gravimeter" "GHz", "gravimeter" "THz",

"accelerometer" "kHz", "accelerometer" "MHz", "accelerometer" "GHz", "accelerometer" "THz"

"velocimetry" (then differentiate), "particle image velocimetry", "laser doppler velocimetry", "particle tracking velocimetry", "feature tracking",

"velocimetry" "earthquake", "particle image velocimetry" "earthquake", "particle image velocimetry" "seismometer", "image velocimetry" "seismometer", "image velocimetry" "accelerometer", "gelatinous" "velocimetry", "gelatinous" "accelerometer",

"cell phone" "accelerometer", "cell phone" "accelerometer" "array", "low cost" "accelerometer", "inexpensive accelerometers",

"displacement map", "deformation map", "image correlation", "seismic displacement", "radar interferometry", "image cross correlation", "absolute pixel localization", "displacement measurement", "vibration meter", "vibration detection", "displacement measurement" "seismometer", "displacement sensor",

Deprecated: "gravity imaging", "gravity noise", "gravity images", "gravity change"


"Newtonian noise", "atom interferometer", "atom interferometer" AND gravity, "seismometer", "gravity signals",

Earthquake Monitoring, Early Warning, and Imaging:

Observations and modeling of the elasto–gravity signals preceding direct seismic waves, PubMed

Martin Vallee, Institut de Physique du Globe du Paris Seismology, Web, Email

Jean-Paul Ampuero, California Institute of Technology Seismology Laboratory, Web, Email

Prompt gravity signal induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

Jean-Paul Montagner, Laboratoire de Sismologie, Institut de Physique du Globe

Prompt Earthquake Detection Based on Transient Gravity Signals

Kevin Juhal, Jean-Paul Montagner, Matteo Barsuglia, Jean-Paul Ampuero, Eric Chassande-Mottin, Bernard Whiting, Eric Clevede

Transient gravity perturbations induced by earthquake rupture

Jan Harms, ResearchGate,

Development of a New Broadband Optical Seismometer

Mark Zumberge (Email) and Jonathan Berger, Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Erhard Wielandt, Stuttgart University, ResearchGate, Seismic Sensors and Their Calibration, SSaTC

Time Lapse Gravity and Time Lapse Seismic

Wide Area Deformation Map Generation with TerraSAR-X Data, ResearchGate,

Nestor Yague-Martinez, Christian Minet, Michael Eineder, Birgit Schättler

Recent Advances in Pixel Localization Accuracy

Newtonian Noise, Fundamental Theory:

Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

Jan Harms

Newtonian-noise cancellation in full-tensor gravitational-wave detectors

Jan HarmsHo Jung Paik

Newtonian Noise 2016

Jan Harms, Vuk Mandic

Influence of Newtonian noise on future detector designs (video)

Jan Harms

Newtonian noise and ambient ground motion for gravitational wave detectors ("One man's noise is another man's signal.")

Mark G Beker, J F J van den Brand,E Hennes, D S Rabeling

Low Frequency Sensitivity of Next Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors (thesis)

Mark G Beker,

Measured Newtonian Noise

Jenne Driggers,


Precision Atomic Gravimeter Based on Bragg Diffraction

P A Altin, M T Johnsson, V Negnevitsky, G R Dennis, R P Anderson, J E Debs, S S Szigeti, K S Hardman, S Bennetts, G D. McDonald, L D Turner, J D Close, N P Robins

See also: A theoretical analysis and determination of the technical requirements for a Bragg diffraction-based cold atom interferometry gravimeter

High Performance Cold Atom Gravimeter, project, mentions earthquake early warning

Miroslav Shverdin, ResearchGate, Web, AOsense, Email

Modulated Laser Interferometer with Picometer Resolution

Chen Chao, Zhihong Wang, Weiguang Zhu

Field Tests of a Portable MEMS Gravimeter

Richard P Middlemiss, Steven G Bramsiepe, Rebecca Douglas, James Hough, Douglas J Paul, Sheila Rowan, Giles D Hammond

Smartphone Technology for Gravimetry

The Superconducting Gravimeter: Earthquakes

Onsala Space Observatory, Gravity Laboratory, Gravimeter,

Hans-Georg Scherneck, Web, Email, ResearchGate,

Earthquake Monitoring with Gravity Meters (seeing the seismic wave after the fact)

Tim Niebauer,

Correspondence: Response of a gravimeter to an instantaneous step in gravity

Thomas Heaton, Caltech Geological and Planetary Sciences, Web, Email

Response Functions of Atom Gravimeters, Finite Speed of Light in Absolute Gravimeters

V D Nagornyi, Arxiv, Google,

Performance of Several Low-Cost Accelerometers

J R Evans, R M Allen, A I Chung, E S Cochran, R Guy,
M Hellweg, and J F Lawrence

University of Victoria, Earth and Ocean Sciences, interested in Elastogravity waves,

Global Network of 3 Axis Seismometers that Can be Used to Monitor Gravity:

Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology IRIS, Web,

Nicholas Schmerr, University of Maryland College Park Geology, Web, Email

Recent Earthquake Map,

IRIS Earthquake Browser, Help,

Global Network of Superconducting Gravimeters Data:

International Geodynamics and Earth Tide Service IGETS,

Obtain Data, Contact

Christoph Forste, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Helmholz Centre Potsdam, Web, Email

Christian Voigt, Web, Email, South African Geodynamic Observatory Sutherland (SAGOS) and the Zugspitze Geodynamic Observatory Germany (ZUGOG)

David Crossley,

Earth Models:

International Centre for Global Earth Models ICGEM

Static Spherical Harmonic Gravitational Potential data (gravitational potential and acceleration, time series)
Time Dependent Spherical Harmonic Gravitational Potential

Franz Barthelmes
Elmas Sinem Ince
Sven Reißland

High Sampling Rate Accelerometers:

Validation of a High Sampling Rate Inertial Measurement Unit for Acceleration During Running


Calibrating Networks for Solar System Gravimetry:

Solar System Ephemerides:

IAU, X2 – Cross-Division A-F Commission Solar System Ephemerides, Astrometric Data Exchange Standard,
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL Planetary Ephemeris, JPL Solar System Dynamics, Overview of DE Series
Interplanetary Network Progress Report 42-196, 15 Feb 2014, The Planetary and Lunar Ephemerides DE430 and DE431
IPN Progress Report 42-178, The Planetary and Lunar Ephemeris DE 421, FTP Ascii Ephemeris for DE421,
SPICE Overview, FTP Binary Ephemeris Files, FTP Ascii Ephemeris Files, Ascii Format of Ephemeris Files, Reading SPK Files,
Planetary Data System Reference,,

Solar System Gravity Models:

Gravity Models, Grail Spherical Harmonic Ascii Data Records Using DE421 and DE430, SHADR for 900x900, 600x600, 1200x1200, 420x420, 1500x1500

GRACE Earth Models, GRACE FTP, Release Notes,

Potential Fields: Gravitational Potential of Mars, Venus, Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Asteroids, Comets, Stars, Galaxies, Milky Way Galaxy, Universe
Universal Gravitational Potential.  Spherical Harmonic Gravity Models, Venus Spherical Harmonic Gravity Model, Venus Gravity Model
Earth Gravity Model, Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008)

International Center for Global Earth Models, ICGEM, Official Model,

Tidal Correction Software:

Any site can be inverted to add to the network, TSoft, Eterna33, Calc11, Difxcalc – Calc11 for the DiFX Correlator,
Tidal Constituent and Residual Interpolation (TCARI), TCARI,
San Diego Harmonic Constituents for 9410170, Tide Predictions,
Coastal Digital Elevation Models, Digital Elevation Models,

VLBI:  Three axis/multiaxis gravimeters at VLBI accuracies, 0.1 mm and 0.1 mas. VLBI Global Observing System (VGOS), Difxcalc, National Geodetic Infrastructure, International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry 2016 General Meeting Proceedings 'New Horizons with VGOS'

Estimation of Solid Earth Tidal Parameters and FCN with VLBI, Hana Krasna
National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Search Earth Tides
Ten Reasons Why Accurate Pointing is NonTrivial, Patrick Wallace
International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry, International Astronomical Union, ICSU World Data System,
VLBI Standards Website, VLBI.Org, Resources
FITS Interferometry Data Interchange Format, FITS-IDI
Very Long Baseline Array, Canadian S2 VLBI Correlator, VSOP Mitaka Correlator,
Haystack Observatory, Haystack Observatory Postprocessing System, HOPS
The Role of VLBI is Astrophysics, Astrometry and Geodesy.

Precision GPS Networks: 

Tidal Corrections, Replace VLBI with Gravity counterpart, no absorption or distortion, global 24 hours observation network, Sun moon and planets, Time variations,

Geodetic Networks:

Geodetic Deformation Monitoring: From Geophysical to Engineering Rolls, IAG, Crustal Deformation Fields, Deformation Parameters, Geodesy, Local Displacement Vectors,
Geodetic Network, Pipelines, Wastewater, Storm Sewers, Flood Zones, Floods, Tidal Areas, Freshwater Preservation,

Big G: Laboratory Big G Experiments with Simultaneous Comparison to NASA/JPL GMs and GMm, Gravitational Constant, "Big G", Time of Swing Experiment
NIST G, NIST Big G Challenge,

Cavendish Experiments: Pendulum Observation and Instrumentation, Inverted Pendulum, Hanging Sheets, Torsion, Magnetic Levitation, Passive Magnetic Levitation at Room Temperatures, Position Correction, Velocity Correction, Acceleration Correction, Tilt Correction,

Seismometers: IRIS Url Builder, JPL Horizons Web Interface, International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM),

Earth Rotation and Orientation: , US Naval Observatory - Earth Orientation

Gravitational Wave Experiments, Tidal Suppression, Vibration Isolation: Gravitational Wave Experiments, Quadrupole Signals, Vibration Isolation Subsystems, Vibration Cancellation, Acceleration Isolation, Acceleration Cancellation,

        Guidebook to Terrestrial and Solar System Newtonian Gravity Signals

Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations, Jan Harms, Jan Harms, gravity perturbations, gravity noise, gravity fluctuations, gravity transients, Newtonian noise, terrestrial gravity noise, gravity gradient noise, seismic noise, gravity noise mitigation, noise suppression, gravity noise cancellation, seismic channels, infrasound Newtonian noise, gravity strainmeters, gravity gradiometer, stochastic gravitational wave background, stochastic gravitational background, stochastic gravity, stochastic seismic fields

Propagation Effects of Gravity Changes
Sensor Arrays and Gravity Perturbations
Gravity Perturbation Arrival Time Differences
Shock Wave Sources, Pressure Fluctuation Sources, Temperature Fluctuation Sources
Seismic Sources of Gravity Changes, Earthquake Sources of Gravity Changes
Gravity Strainmeters as Monitors of Geophysical Signals, Earthquake Early Warning
Terrestrial Gravity Perturbations Above 10 mHz - Strainmeters as Technology of Choice
Turbulent Sources of Gravity Transients
Ocean Waves
Cars, Trucks, Air Masses, Ocean Currents, Trains, People, Buildings, Planes,

Subtraction of Newtonian Noise Using Optimized Sensor Arrays, Jennifer C Driggers
Subtraction of correlated noise in global networks of gravitational-wave interferometers
MIGA: Combining laser and matter wave interferometry for mass distribution monitoring and advanced geodesy
Passive Newtonian noise suppression for gravitational-wave observatories based on shaping of the local topography
Suspension-thermal noise in spring-antispring systems for future gravitational-wave detectors
Limiting the effects of earthquakes on gravitational-wave interferometers, Michael Coughlin
Seismic topographic scattering in the context of GW detector site selection
Towards a first design of a Newtonian-noise cancellation system for Advanced LIGO
Wiener filtering with a seismic underground array at the Sanford Underground Research Facility
Constraining the gravitational wave energy density of the Universe in the Range 0.1 Hz to 1 Hz using the Apollo Seismic Array, Earth Moon Correlation Search

Gravity-Gradient Subtraction in 3rd Generation Underground Gravitational-Wave Detectors in Homogeneous Media
Simulation of underground gravity gradients from stochastic seismic fields

Squeezed Light for the Interferometric Detection of High Frequency Gravitational Waves

Newtonian-noise cancellation in full-tensor gravitational-wave detectors

Constraining the gravitational wave energy density of the Universe using Earth’s ring

Three-axis superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity experiments, Ho Jung Paik, tensor gravimeter, superconducting accelerometer, Newton-noise cancellation,
Newtonian noise cancellation in tensor gravitational wave detector, superconducting gravity gradiometer,
Levitated Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer for Planetary Missions, C E Griggs, H J Paik, M V Moody, et al

Atomic Clocks: GPS, International Time Keeping, Atom Fountain

Sagnac Effect: Ring Laser Gyros, Ring Laser Gyroscopes, Sagnac Effect

Ocean Tidal Stations, Tsunami Stations:

Tidal Recording, Measuring Tides, 200 Years of Measuring Tides, Water Levels, Nantucket Island 201701, Nawiliwili HI 201701, One Minute Water Level Data, Tsunami Stations, Tsunami Capable Tile Stations, Moored Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters, Tidal Energy Sites,

Coastal Tide Gauges, Tidal Analysis, Ocean Tide Models, Altimetric Bathymetry, Bottom Pressure Recorders,

Estimation of main tidal constituents from TOPEX altimetry using a Proudman function expansion, Braulio Valentin Sanchez, Nikolaos K Pavlis
Objective Analysis for Tides in a Closed Basin, Braulio V Sanchez et al.
Laplace Tidal Equations, Proudman-Rao method, Normal Mode Investigations, Gravitational Modes, Rotational Modes, Tidal Response, Equilibrium Tide, Diurnal Admittance Curves,

Sea Surface Height: Laser Altimeters, Satellite, Stations, Ocean Boundaries, Bathymetry, Submarine Topography, Tsunami Travel Times,
Ocean Wave Heights, Ocean Wave Speeds, Ocean Currents, Sea Water Velocity,
Global Real Time Ocean Forecast System, RTOFS, HYCOM,
National Centers for Environmental Information, ErdDap, GridDap, Documentation,

Well Logs:

Speed of Gravity Experiments:

Time Delays of the Gravitational Fields of the Sun and Moon, John Francis Clauser

Gravity Satellites: GRACE, GOCE

Solar System Ephemeris, Laser Ranging, JPL Modeling,

Paricle Accelerators, Accelerator Labs :

Stanford Linear Accelerator, Andrei Seryi, SLAC Tunnel Motion and Analysis


Large Hadron Collider LHC - 

LEP - 




Superconducting gravimeters:

International Geodynamics and Earth Tide Service (IGETS) - GGP
GWR Instruments, Superconducting Gravity Sensors, Low Frequency Seismology,

MEMS Gravimeters:

Earth Tides Image, Description, Paper, University of Glasgow, James Watt NanoFabrication Centre, Giles Hammond

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Liang-Cheng Tu

Atom Gravimeters:

Ultra-High Sensitivity Accelerometers and Gyroscopes Using Neutral Atom Matter-Wave Interferometry, John Francis Clauser, Observation of the gravitational fields of the sun and moon, Atom Interferometer Gravimeters

Matter Wave Interferometers:  Atom Interferometry Tidal Signals, Holger Muller

Precision Measurement of g and G, Faller,

Atom interferometry for absolute measurements of local gravity

Compact Cold Atom Gravimeter for Field Applications

Cold Atom Gravimeter, Franck Pereira

AOSense Compact Atomic Gravimeter 20 Hz

MuQuans, Absolute Quantum Gravimeter 2Hz, DatasheetHybridized Absolute Gravimeter 430 Hz (speed of gravity capable?)

ColdQuanta, Atom Chips, Cold Atom Sources, In Vacuum Optical Access, Core Capabilities

High Sampling Rate Imaging Systems:

GHz, THz Gravimeter Sampling Rates, Array Imaging, Extra Solar Gravimeter Sources,

When you use high sampling rates to measure gravity fields, you can use that to replicate most of the electromagnetic technologies.  Signaling, detection, imaging, time of flight methods.

Image Based Position, Velocity and Acceleration Sensors: Particle Tracking, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, Particle Tracking and Acceleration Fields, Brownian Acceleration Fields, Particle Image Velocimetry, Particle Tracking Accelerometry, Particle Tracking Velocimetry and Accelerometry (PVTA), Particle Image Velocimetry and Accelerometry, Measuring Turbulence, Anemometry, Doppler Velocimetry, Lidar, Velocity Sensor, Sonic Anemometer,

Brownian Motion Based Detectors: Vorticity Field, Vortex Identification, Vortex Mapping, Vortex Filament, Vortex Lines, Vortex Tubes, Irrotational, Material Derivative, Vortex Modelling, Vortex Structures, Flow Topology, Vortex Flows, Turbulent Flows, On the Relationship Between Local Vortex Identification Schemes, University of Illinois
Methods of Vortex Identification,Vivianne Holmen, Turbulent Flames

Plasma, Cold Beam Detectors:

Vibration Sensors:

Tilt Sensors: HomeStake Hydrostatic Level Sensors, Sanford Underground Research Facility,

Inertial Sensors:


Atomic Force Techniques, Atomic Force Arrays, Synthetic Aperture Methods in Gravimetry,

Resource Terms:

Accelerometers - Measuring Acceleration, Accelerometry, Acceleration Fields and Velocity Fluctuations,
Gravitational Acceleration - Acceleration from Attraction of Masses
Acceleration - Force per unit Mass, Second Derivative of Position with respect to Time, Gradient of a Potential
Gravimeters - Special Purpose Accelerometers, Gravimeters, Gravimetry, Gravimetric
Gravity - Gravitational and Centrifugal Acceleration Fields, Acceleration from Rotation
Second and higher derivatives with respect to time - Position, Velocity, Acceleration, Jerk, Snap, Crackle, Pop, Differential Geometry,
Gravitational Potential - Energy per unit Mass, Gravitational Intensity,
Acceleration Field Wavelengths and Frequencies, FFT of Accelerometer and Gravimeter Signals, Generalized FFT Transforms, Response Functions,
Earth's Gravitational Potential or Geopotential, Lunar Gravitational Potential, Solar Gravitational Potential, Gravitational Gradients,


Royal Observatory of Belgium
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Signatories
Gravity Research Foundation
Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA
NIST, Measurement of the Acdeleration Due to Gravity, Search Gravity,


Joseph Weber
Charles Misner
Robert Forward

What is Gravity:

Acceleration Fields, PhaseVelocity * GroupVelocity = C^2 = Universal Gravitational Potential, Vacuum Properties, Vacuum Polarization, Vacuum Birefringence, Pair Production,

Superfluids, superconductors,

Cooper Pairs, Dielectron, Diproton, Dineutron, Vacuum SuperConductors, Vacuum SuperFluids, Nuclear Force, Beta Decay, Neutron Decay, Neutron Structure, Nuclear Structure,

Scalar, Vector, Tensor, Computable Fields

Gravitational Energy Density, Robert Forward

Gravitational Energy Density and the Perihelion of Mercury, Joseph Kolecki,

Dark Matter, Dark Energy,

Fluid Rotation, Rotational Vibrational and Translational Energies, Fluid Dynamics, Fluid Properties, Scalar Fields, Vector Fields, Tensor Fields, Inviscid Flows, Viscosity Field,  Vorticity,